Kliniska studier på joniserat H2 vatten
De sista åren har det skett ett enormt uppsving i studier av joniserat H2 vatten runt om i världen. Här följer några utan speciell rangordning men klassade i områdesfält. Längre ner på sidan under dessa olika områden finns även studier som har tagits fram med ursprungstexten skriven i studien. Detta är de olika områden som studerats:
Vi har samlat ännu mer forskningsrapporter om detta vatten här och valt att behålla dessa ursprungstexter på engelska.
Livsvattens joniserade och funktionella vatten har olika namn i forskning och media:
- Electrolysis Reduced Water (ERW)
- Electrolyzed Anode Water (EAW)
- Alkaline or Acid Reduced Water
- Electrolyzed Ionized Water
- Alkaline Antioxidant Water
- Ionized Water
- Water Ionizer
- Alkaline Antioxidant Water
- Structured Water
- Miracle Water/Kangen Water
Använd din mus för att navigera tillbaks till huvudmenyn.
Forskning på joniserat basiskt vatten
(Alkaline Electrolyzed Reduced Water Research )
- Inhibitory effect of electrolyzed reduced water on tumor angiogenesis
- Preservative effect of electrolyzed reduced water on pancreatic β-cell mass in diabetic mice
- Anti cancer effect of alkaline reduced water
- Electrolyzed-reduced water scavenges active oxygen u0026amp; protects DNA from oxidative damage.
- Electrolyzed-reduced water protects against oxidative damage to DNA, RNA, and protein.
- The mechanism of the enhanced antioxidant effects of reduced water produced by electrolysis.
- Use of ionized water in hypochlorhydria, achlorhydria, reduction of high blood pressure
- Use of ionized water for gynecological conditions
- Clinical improvements obtained from the uptake of Ionized Water
- Alkaline ionized water for abdominal complaints: Placebo controlled double blind tests
- Physiological effects of alkaline ionized water: intestinal fermentation
- Effects of calcium alkaline ionized water on formation and maintenance of osseous tissues
- Reduced water for prevention of disease
- Use of Ionized water in heart disease and toxins
- Use of Ionized water in skin disease.
- Use of Ionized water in allergies.
- Use of Ionized water in diabetes treatment
- Use of Ionized water in treating Acidosis
- Environmental electrochemistry of water
- Fluid replacement promotes optimal physical performance
Forskning på joniserat surt vatten
(Acidic Electrolyzed Reduced Water Research )
- Anti microbial interventions to reduce Salmonella species on poultry
- Treatment of Escherichia coli inoculated alfalfa sprouts with electrolyzed oxidizing water
- Inactivation of E. coli u0026amp; Listeria on plastic kitchen cutting boards by electrolyzed oxidizing water.
- The bactericidal effects of electrolyzed oxidizing water on bacterial strains in hospital infections
- Effect of electrolyzed water on wound healing
- Effect of electrolyzed oxidizing water on excised burn-wounds in rats
- Decomposition of ethylene, a flower-senescence hormone, with electrolyzed anode water.
Alkaline Electrolyzed Reduced Water – Ionized Water
Inhibitory effect of electrolyzed reduced water on tumor angiogenesis
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2008 Jan;31(1):19-26
Ye J, Li Y, Hamasaki T, Nakamichi N, Komatsu T, Kashiwagi T, Teruya K, Nishikawa R, Kawahara T, Osada K, Toh K, Abe M, Tian H, Kabayama S, Otsubo K, Morisawa S, Katakura Y, Shirahata S.
Graduate School of Systems Life Sciences, Kyushu University, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581, JapanVascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key mediator of tumor angiogenesis. Tumor cells are exposed to higher oxidative stress compared to normal cells. Numerous reports have demonstrated that the intracellular redox (oxidation/reduction, ORP) state is closely associated with the pattern of VEGF expression. Electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) produced near the cathode during the electrolysis of water scavenged intracellular H(2)O(2) and decreased the release of H(2)O(2) from a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line, A549, and down-regulated both VEGF transcription and protein secretion in a time-dependent manner. To investigate the signal transduction pathway involved in regulating VEGF expression, mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK) specific inhibitors, SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor), PD98059 (ERK1/2 inhibitor) and JNKi (c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase inhibitor) were applied. The results showed that only PD98059 blocks VEGF expression, suggesting an important role for ERK1/2 in regulating VEGF expression in A549 cells. As well, ERW inhibited the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in a time-dependent manner. Co-culture experiments to analyze in vitro tubule formation assay revealed that A549 cell-derived conditioned medium significantly stimulated the formation of vascular tubules in all analyzed parameters; tubule total area, tubule junction, number of tubules, and total tubule length. ERW counteracted the effect of A549 cell-conditioned medium and decreased total tube length (p<0.01). The present study demonstrated that ERW down-regulated VEGF gene transcription and protein secretion through inactivation of ERK.Related Research:
Denna information är framtagen från olika källor såsom forskningsinstitut men även från olika internetsidor Den är endast i utbildande syfte och är inte menad att behandla eller läka någon sjukdom eller symtom. Konsultera med din läkare för att få medicinska råd i ämnet.
Preservative Effect of Electrolyzed Reduced Water on Pancreatic β-Cell Mass in Diabetic db/db Mice
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 2007 Feb;30(2):234-6Mi-Ja Kim1,2, Kyung Hee Jung,3 Yoon Kyung Uhm,3 Kang-Hyun Leem,4 and Hye Kyung Kim,51) Department of Obesity Management, Graduate School of Obesity Science, Dongduk Women’s University
2) Imagine Obesity Institute, 117 Purynsol Mun Wa Gyun, Kyung Hee University
3) Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University
4) College of Korean Medicine, Semyung University
5) Department of Food and Biotechnology, Hanseo UniversityOxidative stress is produced under diabetic conditions and involved in progression of pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. Both an increase in reactive oxygen free radical species (ROS) and a decrease in the antioxidant defense mechanism lead to the increase in oxidative stress in diabetes. Electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) with ROS scavenging ability may have a potential effect on diabetic animals, a model for high oxidative stress. Therefore, the present study examined the possible anti-diabetic effect of ERW in genetically diabetic mouse strain C57BL/6J-db/db (db/db). ERW with ROS scavenging ability reduced the blood glucose concentration, increased blood insulin level, improved glucose tolerance and preserved β-cell mass in db/db mice. The present data suggest that ERW may protects β-cell damage and would be useful for antidiabetic agent.Related Research:
Denna information är framtagen från olika källor såsom forskningsinstitut men även från olika internetsidor Den är endast i utbildande syfte och är inte menad att behandla eller läka någon sjukdom eller symtom. Konsultera med din läkare för att få medicinska råd i ämnet.
Anti Cancer Effect of Alkaline Reduced Water
By the Department of Parasitology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Department of Microbiology, Department of Biochemistry, Wonju College of Medicine , Yonsei University Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science and Institute of Health Science, College of Health Science, Yonsei University .
Certain minerals can produce alkaline reduced water with high pH and low oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) when dissolved in water. Alkaline reduced water showed significant anticancer effect. When B16 melanoma cells were inoculated subcutaneous and intra-peritoneally, C56BL/6 mice fed with alkaline reduced water showed tumor growth delay and the survival span was significantly lengthened. Alkaline reduced water also showed the inhibition of metastasis by reducing the numbers of B16 melanoma colonies when injected through tail vein. The amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was very reduced when fed with alkaline reduced water except for spleen, which is a major organ for immunity. Even for normal mice, alkaline reduced water intake invoked systemic cytokines, such as, Th1 (IFN- g, IL-12) and Th2 (IL-4, IL-5), suggesting strong immuno-modulation effect. Both ROS scavenging effect and immuno-modulation effect might be responsible for anticancer effect of alkaline reduced water. Continue reading the full study
Denna information är framtagen från olika källor såsom forskningsinstitut men även från olika internetsidor Den är endast i utbildande syfte och är inte menad att behandla eller läka någon sjukdom eller symtom. Konsultera med din läkare för att få medicinska råd i ämnet.
Adequate fluid replacement helps maintain hydration and, promotes the health, safety, and optimal physical performance of individuals participating in regular physical activity.
Med Sci Sports Exercise
1996 Jan;28(1):i-vii.American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and fluid replacement. Convertino VA, Armstrong LE, Coyle EF, Mack GW, Sawka MN, Senay LC Jr, Sherman WM.It is the position of the American College of Sports Medicine that adequate fluid replacement helps maintain hydration and, therefore, promotes the health, safety, and optimal physical performance of individuals participating in regular physical activity. This position statement is based on a comprehensive review and interpretation of scientific literature concerning the influence of fluid replacement on exercise performance and the risk of thermal injury associated with dehydration and hyperthermia. Based on available evidence, the American College of Sports Medicine makes the following general recommendations on the amount and composition of fluid that should be ingested in preparation for, during, and after exercise or athletic competition: 1) It is recommended that individuals consume a nutritionally balanced diet and drink adequate fluids during the 24-hr period before an event, especially during the period that includes the meal prior to exercise, to promote proper hydration before exercise or competition. 2) It is recommended that individuals drink about 500 ml (about 17 ounces) of fluid about 2 h before exercise to promote adequate hydration and allow time for excretion of excess ingested water. 3) During exercise, athletes should start drinking early and at regular intervals in an attempt to consume fluids at a rate sufficient to replace all the water lost through sweating (i.e., body weight loss), or consume the maximal amount that can be tolerated. 4) It is recommended that ingested fluids be cooler than ambient temperature [between 15 degrees and 22 degrees C (59 degrees and 72 degrees F])] and flavored to enhance palatability and promote fluid replacement. Fluids should be readily available and served in containers that allow adequate volumes to be ingested with ease and with minimal interruption of exercise. 5) Addition of proper amounts of carbohydrates and/or electrolytes to a fluid replacement solution is recommended for exercise events of duration greater than 1 h since it does not significantly impair water delivery to the body and may enhance performance. During exercise lasting less than 1 h, there is little evidence of physiological or physical performance differences between consuming a carbohydrate-electrolyte drink and plain water. 6) During intense exercise lasting longer than 1 h, it is recommended that carbohydrates be ingested at a rate of 30-60 g.h(-1) to maintain oxidation of carbohydrates and delay fatigue. This rate of carbohydrate intake can be achieved without compromising fluid delivery by drinking 600-1200 ml.h(-1) of solutions containing 4%-8% carbohydrates (g.100 ml(-1)). The carbohydrates can be sugars (glucose or sucrose) or starch (e.g., maltodextrin). 7) Inclusion of sodium (0.5-0.7 g.1(-1) of water) in the rehydration solution ingested during exercise lasting longer than 1 h is recommended since it may be advantageous in enhancing palatability, promoting fluid retention, and possibly preventing hyponatremia in certain individuals who drink excessive quantities of fluid. There is little physiological basis for the presence of sodium in n oral rehydration solution for enhancing intestinal water absorption as long as sodium is sufficiently available from the previous meal.
Electrolyzed-reduced water scavenges active oxygen species and protects DNA from oxidative damage.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun.
1997 May 8;234(1):269-74.
Institute of Cellular Regulation Technology, Graduate School of Genetic Resources Technology, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan. [email protected] Active oxygen species or free radicals are considered to cause extensive oxidative damage to biological macromolecules, which brings about a variety of diseases as well as aging. The ideal scavenger for active oxygen should be ‘active hydrogen’. ‘Active hydrogen’ can be produced in reduced water near the cathode during electrolysis of water. Reduced water exhibits high pH, low dissolved oxygen (DO), extremely high dissolved molecular hydrogen (DH), and extremely negative redox potential (RP) values. Strongly electrolyzed-reduced water, as well as ascorbic acid, (+)-catechin and tannic acid, completely scavenged O.-2 produced by the hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase (HX-XOD) system in sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0). The superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity of reduced water is stable at 4 degrees C for over a month and was not lost even after neutralization, repeated freezing and melting, deflation with sonication, vigorous mixing, boiling, repeated filtration, or closed autoclaving, but was lost by opened autoclaving or by closed autoclaving in the presence of tungsten trioxide which efficiently adsorbs active atomic hydrogen. Water bubbled with hydrogen gas exhibited low DO, extremely high DH and extremely low RP values, as does reduced water, but it has no SOD-like activity. These results suggest that the SOD-like activity of reduced water is not due to the dissolved molecular hydrogen but due to the dissolved atomic hydrogen (active hydrogen). Although SOD accumulated H2O2 when added to the HX-XOD system, reduced water decreased the amount of H2O2 produced by XOD. Reduced water, as well as catalase and ascorbic acid, could directly scavenge H2O2. Reduced water suppresses single-strand breakage of DNA b active oxygen species produced by the Cu(II)-catalyzed oxidation of ascorbic acid in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that reduced water can scavenge not only O2.- and H2O2, but also 1O2 and .OH. PMID: 9169001 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
Electrolyzed-reduced water protects against oxidative damage to DNA, RNA, and protein.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol.
2006 Nov;135(2):133-44.Lee MY, Kim YK, Ryoo KK, Lee YB, Park EJ. Department of Genetic Engineering, Soonchunhyang University, Asan, Chungnam 336-600, Korea.The generation of reactive oxygen species is thought to cause extensive oxidative damage to various biomolecules such as DNA, RNA, and protein. In this study, the preventive, suppressive, and protective effects of in vitro supplementation with electrolyzed-reduced water on H2O2-induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes were examined using a comet assay. Pre-treatment, co-treatment, and post-treatment with electrolyzed-reduced water enhanced human lymphocyte resistance to the DNA strand breaks induced by H2O2 in vitro. Moreover, electrolyzed-reduced water was much more effective than diethylpyrocarbonate-treated water in preventing total RNA degradation at 4 and 25 degrees C. In addition, electrolyzed-reduced water completely prevented the oxidative cleavage of horseradish peroxidase, as determined using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. Enhancement of the antioxidant activity of ascorbic acid dissolved in electrolyzed-reduced water was about threefold that of ascorbic acid dissolved in nonelectrolyzed deionized water, as measured by a xanthine-xanthine oxidase superoxide scavenging assay system, suggesting an inhibitory effect of electrolyzedreduced water on the oxidation of ascorbic acid.PMID: 17159237 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
The mechanism of the enhanced antioxidant effects against superoxide anion radicals of reduced water produced by electrolysis.
Biophys Chem. 2004
Hanaoka K, Sun D, Lawrence R, Kamitani Y, Fernandes G.
Bio-REDOX Laboratory Inc. 1187-4, Oaza-Ueda, Ueda-shi, Nagano-ken 386-0001, Japan. [email protected]
We reported that reduced water produced by electrolysis enhanced the antioxidant effects of proton donors such as ascorbic acid (AsA) in a previous paper. We also demonstrated that reduced water produced by electrolysis of 2 mM NaCl solutions did not show antioxidant effects by itself. We reasoned that the enhancement of antioxidant effects may be due to the increase of the ionic product of water as solvent. The ionic product of water (pKw) was estimated by measurements of pH and by a neutralization titration method. As an indicator of oxidative damage, Reactive Oxygen Species- (ROS) mediated DNA strand breaks were measured by the conversion of supercoiled phiX-174 RF I double-strand DNA to open and linear forms. Reduced water had a tendency to suppress single-strand breakage of DNA induced by reactive oxygen species produced by H2O2/Cu (II) and HQ/Cu (II) systems. The enhancement of superoxide anion radical dismutation activity can be explained by changes in the ionic product of water in the reduced water.
PMID: 14871602 [PubMed]
Use of Ionized water in hypochlorhydria or achlorhydria
Prof. Kuninaka Hironage, Head of Kuninaka Hospital “Too many fats in the diets, which lead to the deposition of cholesterol on the blood vessels, which in turn constrict the blood flow, cause most illnesses such as high blood pressure. In accordance with the theory of Professor Gato of Kyushu University on Vitamin K (because vitamin K enables the blood calcium to increase ), or the consumption of more antioxidant water, the effectiveness of the increase in the calcium in high blood pressure is most significant. The consumption of alkaline antioxidant water for a period of 2 to 3 months, I have observed the blood pressure slowly drop, due to the water’s solvent ability, which dissolves the cholesterol in the blood vessels.”
Use of Ionized water for gynecological conditions
Prof. Watanabe Ifao, Watanabe Hospital “Ionized alklaine antioxidant water improves body constituents and ensures effective healing to many illnesses. The uses of antioxidant water in gynecological patients have proved to be very effective. The main reason for its effectiveness is that this water can neutralize toxins.When given antioxidant water to pre-eclamptic toxemia cases, the results are most significant. During my long years of servicing the pre-eclamptic toxemia cases, I found that the women with pre-eclamptic toxemia who consumed antioxidant water tend to deliver healthier babies with stronger muscles. A survey report carried out on babies in this group showed intelligence above average.”
Prof. Kuwata Keijiroo, Doctor of Medicine“In my opinion, the wonder of antioxidant water is the ability neutralizes toxins, but it is not a medicine. The difference is that the medicine can only apply to each and individual case, whereas the antioxidant water can be consumed generally and its neutralizing power is something which is very much unexpected. Now, in brief, let me introduce to you a heart disease case and how it was cured.The patient was a 35 years old male suffering from vascular heart disease. For 5 years, his sickness deteriorated. He was in the Setagays Government Hospital for treatment.
During those 5 years, he had been in and out of the hospital 5 to 6 times. He had undergone high tech examinations such as angiogram by injecting VINYL via the vein into the heart. He consulted and sought treatment from many good doctors where later he underwent a major surgical operation. Upon his discharge from the hospital, he quit his job to convalesce. However, each time when his illness relapsed, the attack seemed to be even more severe. Last year, in August, his relatives were in despair and expected he would not live much longer. It so happened at that time that the victim’s relative came across antioxidant water processor. His illness responded well and he is now on the road to recovery.”
(In the United States, cardiovascular diseases account for more than one-half of the approximate 2 million deaths occurring each year…. It is estimated that optimal conditioning of drinking water could reduce this cardiovascular disease mortality rate by as much as 15 percent in the United States) – Report of the Safe Drinking Water Committee of the National Academy of Sciences, 1977
Prof. Tamura Tatsuji, Keifuku Rehabilitation Center
“Eczema is used to describe several varieties of skin conditions, which have a number of common features. The exact cause or causes of eczema are not fully understood. I many cases, eczema can be attributed by external irritants.Let me introduce a patient who recovered from skin disease after consuming the antioxidant water. This patient suffered 10 years of eczema and could not be cured effectively even under specialist treatment. This patient, who is 70 years of age, is the president of a vehicle spare parts company. After the war, his lower limbs suffered acute eczema, which later became chronic. He was repeatedly treated in a specialist skin hospital.
The left limb responded well to treatment, but not so on the right limb. He suffered severe itchiness, which, when scratched led to bleeding. During the last 10 years, he was seen and treated by many doctors. When I first examined him, his lower limb around the joints was covered with vesicles. Weeping occurred owing to serum exuding from the vesicles.
I advised him to try consuming antioxidant water. He bought a unit and consumed the antioxidant water religiously and used the acidic water to bathe the affected areas. After 2 weeks of treatment the vesicles dried up. The eczema was completely cleared without any relapse after 1½ month.”
Prof. Kuninaka Hironaga, Head of Kuninaka Hospital “Mr. Yamada, the head of Police Research Institute, suffered from severe allergy. He was treated repeatedly by skin specialist, but with no success. Then he started consuming antioxidant water. The allergy responded very well and was soon completely cured. No relapse had occurred, although he had taken all kinds of food. He was most grateful and excited about this treatment.
As for myself, I had also suffered severe allergy. Ever since I began to consume antioxidant water, the allergy has recovered. Since then, I started a research on the effectiveness of antioxidant water.
I discovered that most allergies are due to acidification of body condition and is also related to consuming too much meat and sugar. In every allergy case, the patient’s antioxidant minerals are excessively low which in turn lower the body resistance significantly. The body becomes overly sensitive and develops allergy easily. To stabilize the sensitivity, calcium solution in injected into the vein. Therefore, it is clear that the antioxidant water has ionic calcium, which can help alleviate allergy.
The ionic calcium not only enhances the heart, urination, and neutralization of toxins but controls acidity. It also enhances the digestive system and liver function. This will promote natural healing power and hence increase its resistance to allergy. In some special cases of illness, which do not respond to drugs, it is found, it is found to respond well to antioxidant water.”
Prof. Kogure Keizou, Kogure Clinic of Juntendo Hospital “The stomach is readily upset both by diseases affecting the stomach and by other general illnesses. In addition, any nervous tension or anxiety frequently causes gastric upset, vague symptoms when This information is under some strain.
The important role of antioxidant water in our stomach is to neutralize the secretion and strengthen it s functions. Usually, after consuming the antioxidant water for 1 to 3 minutes, the gastric juice increase to 1½ times. For those suffering from hypochlorhydria or achlorhydria ( low in gastric juice ) the presence of antioxidant water will stimulate the stomach cells to secrete more gastric juice. This in turn enhances digestion and absorption of minerals.
However, on the other hand, those with hyperchlorhydria ( high in gastric juice ), the antioxidant water neutralizes the excessive gastric juice. Hence, it does not create any adverse reaction.
According to the medical lecturer from Maeba University, the pH of the gastric secretion will still remain normal when antioxidant water is consumed. This proves that the ability of the antioxidant water is able to neutralize as well as to stimulate the secretion.”
Prof. Kuwata Keijiroo, Doctor of Medicine “When I was serving in the Fire Insurance Association, I used to examine many diabetic patients. Besides treating them with drugs, I provided them with antioxidant water. After drinking antioxidant water for one month, 15 diabetic patients were selected and sent to Tokyo University for further test and observations.
Initially, the more serious patients were a bit apprehensive about the treatment. When the antioxidant water was consumed for some time, the sugar in the blood and urine ranged from a ratio of 300 mg/l to 2 mg / dc. There was a time where the patient had undergone 5 to 6 blood tests a day and detected to be within normal range. Results also showed that even 1 ½ hour after meals, the blood sugar and urine ratio was 100 mg/dc: 0 mg/dc . The sugar in the urine has completely disappeared.”NOTE:
More Americans than ever before are suffering from diabetes, with the number of new cases averaging almost 800,000 each year. The disease has steadily increased in the United States since 1980, and in 1998, 16 million Americans were diagnosed with diabetes (10.3 million diagnosed; 5.4 million undiagnosed). Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States, and more than 193,000 died from the disease and its related complication in 1996. The greatest increase – 76 percent – occurred in people age 30 to 30. ….
From: U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, October 13, 2000 Fact Sheet.
Use of Ionized water in treating Acidosis
Prof. Hatori Tasutaroo, Head of Akajiuiji Blood Centre, Yokohama Hospital, Faitama District“Due to a higher standard of living, our eating habits have changed. We consume too much proteins, fats and sugar. The excess fats and carbohydrates are in the body as fats. In the present lifestyles, Americans are more extravagant on food compared to the Japanese. Due to this excessive intake obesity is a significant problem. Normally, one out of five males and one out of four females is obese.
The degree of “burn-out” in food intake largely depends on the amount on intake of vitamins and minerals. When excessive intake of proteins, carbohydrates and fats occurs, the requirement for vitamins and minerals increases. However, there is not much research carried out pertaining to the importance of vitamins and minerals.
Nowadays, many people suffer from acidification that leads to diabetes, heart diseases, cancer, live and kidney diseases. If our food intake can be completely burned off, then there is no deposition of fats. Obviously, there will be no acidification problem and hence there should not be any sign of obesity.
The antioxidant water contains an abundance of ionic calcium. This ionic calcium helps in the “burn-off” process. By drinking antioxidant water, it provides sufficient minerals for our body. As a result, we do not need to watch our diet to stay slim.
Hence, antioxidant water is a savior for those suffering from obesity and many adult diseases, providing good assistance in enhancing good health.”
Reduced Water For Prevention of Disease
Graduate school of Genetic Resources Technology, Kyushu University,
6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581, Japan.
It has long been established that reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause many typesof damage to biomolecules and cellular structures, that, in turn result in the development of a variety of pathologic states such as diabetes, cancer and aging. Reduced water is defined as anti-oxidative water produced by reduction of water. Electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) has been demonstrated to be hydrogen-rich water and can scavenge ROS in vitro (Shirahata et al., 1997). The reduction of proton in water to active hydrogen (atomic hydrogen, hydrogen radical) that can scavenge ROS is very easily caused by a weak current, compared to oxidation of hydroxyl ion to oxygen molecule. Activation of water by magnetic field, collision, minerals etc. will also produce reduced water containing active hydrogen and/or hydrogen molecule. Several natural waters such as Hita Tenryosui water drawn from deep underground in Hita city in Japan, Nordenau water in Germany and Tlacote water in Mexico are known to alleviate various diseases. We have developed a sensitive method by which we can detect active hydrogen existing in reduced water, and have demonstrated that not only ERW but also natural reduced waters described above contain active hydrogen and scavenge ROS in cultured cells. ROS is known to cause reduction of glucose uptake by inhibiting the insulin-signaling pathway in cultured cells. Reduced water scavenged intracellular ROS and stimulated glucose uptake in the presence or absence of insulin in both rat L6 skeletal muscle cells and mouse 3T3/L1 adipocytes. This insulin-like activity of reduced water was inhibited by wortmannin that is specific inhibitor of PI-3 kinase, a key molecule in insulin signaling pathways. Reduced water protected insulin-responsive cells from sugar toxicity and improved the damaged sugar tolerance of type 2 diabetes model mice, suggesting that reduced water may improve insulin-independent diabetes mellitus. Cancer cells are generally exposed to high oxidative stress. Reduced water cause impaired tumor phenotypes of human cancer cells, such as reduced growth rate, morphological changes, reduced colony formation ability in soft agar, passage number-dependent telomere shortening, reduced binding abilities of telomere binding proteins and suppressed metastasis. Reduced water suppressed the growth of cancer cells transplanted into mice, demonstrating their anti-cancer effects in vivo. Reduced water will be applicable to not only medicine but also food industries, agriculture, and manufacturing industries.
Shirahata, S. et al.: Electrolyzed reduced water scavenges active oxygen species and protects DNA from oxidative damage. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 234, 269174, 1997.
Clinical Impovements Obtained From The Intake Of Reduced Water
Extracts from ” Presentation At The Eight Annual International Symposium On man And His Environment in Health And Disease” on February 24th 1990, at The Grand Kempinski Hotel, Dalls, Texas, USA by Dr. H. Hayashi, M.D. and Dr. M Kawamura, M.D., on : – THE CONCEPT OF PREHEPATIC MEDICINESSince the introduction of alkaline ionic water in our clinic in 1985, we have had the following interesting clinical experiences in the use of this type of water. By the use of alkaline ionic water for drinking and the preparation of meals for our in-patients, we have noticed :Declines in blood sugar levels in diabetic patients.
Improvements in peripheral circulation in diabetic gangrene.
Declines in uric acid levels in patients with gout.
Improvements in liver function exams in hepatic disorders.
Improvements in gastroduodenal ulcer and prevention of their recurrences.
Improvements in hypertension and hypotension.
Improvements in allergic disorders such as asthma, urticaria, rhinites and atopic dermatitis.
Improvements in persistent diarrhoea which occurred after gastrectomy.
Quicker improvements in post operative bower paralysis.
Improvements in serum bilirubin levels in new born babies. Being confirming clinical improvements, we have always observed changes of stools of the patients, with the colour of their feaces changing from black-brown colour to a brigher yellow-brown one, and the odour of their feaces becoming almost negligible. The number of patients complaining of constipation also decreased markedly. The change of stool findings strongly suggests that alkaline ionic water intake can decrease the production of putrefield or pathogenic metabolites.Devices to produce reduced water were introduced into our clinic in May 1985. Based on the clinical experiences obtained in the past 15 years, it can be said that introduction of electrolyzed-reduced water for drinking and cooking purpose for in-patients should be the very prerequisite in our daily medical practices. Any dietary recipe cannot be a scientific one if property of water is not taken by the patients is not taken into consideration.The Ministry of Health and Welfare in Japan announced in 1965 that the intake of reduced water is effective for restoration of intestinal flora metabolism.
Clinical evaluation of alkaline ionized water for abdominal complaints: Placebo controlled double blind tests
by Hirokazu Tashiro, Tetsuji Hokudo, Hiromi Ono, Yoshihide Fujiyama, Tadao Baba (National Ohkura Hospital, Dept. of Gastroenterology; Institute of Clinical Research, Shiga University of Medical Science, Second Dept. of Internal Medicine)Effect of alkaline ionized water on abdominal complaints was evaluated by placebo controlled double blind tests. Overall scores of improvement using alkaline ionized water marked higher than those of placebo controlled group, and its effect proved to be significantly higher especially in slight symptoms of chronic diarrhoea and abdominal complaints in cases of general malaise. Alkaline ionized water group did not get interrupted in the course of the test, nor did it show serious side effects nor abnormal test data. It was confirmed that alkaline ionized water is safer and more effective than placebos.
Effect of alkaline ionized water on abdominal complaints was clinically examined by double blind tests using clean water as placebo. Overall improvement rate was higher for alkaline ionized water group than placebo group and the former proved to be significantly more effective than the other especially in cases of slight symptoms. Examining improvement rate for each case of chronic diarrhoea, constipation and abdominal complaints, alkaline ionized water group turned out to be more effective than placebo group for chronic diarrhoea, and abdominal complaints. The test was stopped in one case of chronic diarrhoea, among placebo group due to exacerbation, whereas alkaline ionized water group did not stop testing without serious side effects or abnormal test data in all cases. It was confirmed that alkaline ionized water is more effective than clean water against chronic diarrhoea, abdominal complaints and overall improvement rate (relief of abdominal complaints) and safer than clean water.
Since the approval of alkaline ionized water electrolyzers by Pharmaceutical Affairs Law in 1966 for its antacid effect and efficacy against gastrointestinal disorders including hyperchylia, indigestion, abnormal gastrointestinal fermentation and chronic diarrhoea, they have been extensively used among patients. However, medical and scientific evaluation of their validity is not established. In our study, we examined clinical effect of alkaline ionized water on gastrointestinal disorders across many symptoms in various facilities. Particularly, we studied safety and usefulness of alkaline ionized water by doubleblind tests using clean water as a control group.
Test subjects and methods
163 patients (34 men, 129 women, age 21 to 72, average 38.6 years old) of indigestion, abnormal gastrointestinal fermentation (with abnormal gas emission and rugitus) and abdominal complaints caused by irregular dejection (chronic diarrhoea, or constipation) were tested as subjects with good informed consent. Placebo controlled double blind tests were conducted using alkaline ionized water and clean water at multiple facilities. An alkaline ionized water electrolyzer sold commercially was installed with a pump driven calcium dispenser in each of the subject homes. Tested alkaline ionized water had pH at 9.5 and calcium concentration at 30ppm. Each subject in placebo group used a water purifier that has the same appearance as the electrolyzer and produces clean water.The tested equipment was randomly assigned by a controller who scaled off the key code which was stored safely until the tests were completed and the seal was opened again.Water samples were given to each patient in the amount of 200ml in the morning with the total of 50OmI or more per day for a month. Before and after the tests, blood, urine and stool were tested and a log was kept on the subjective symptoms, bowel movements and accessory symptoms. After the tests, the results were analyzed based on the log and the test data.
Water Ionizer Test Results
1. SymptomsAmong 163 tested subjects, alkaline ionized water group included 84 and placebo group 79. Background factors such as gender, age and basal disorders did not contribute to significant difference in the results.2. Overall improvement rate
As to overall improvement rate of abdominal complaints, alkaline ionized water group had 2 cases of outstanding improvement (2.5%), 26 cases of fair improvement (32.1%), 36 cases of slight improvement (44.4%), 13 cases of no change (16%) and 4 cases of exacerbation (4.9%), whereas placebo group exhibited 4 (5.2%), 19 (24.7%), 27 (35.1%), 25 (32.5%) and 2 cases (2.6%) for the same category. Comparison between alkaline ionized water and placebo groups did not reveal any significant difference at the level of 5% significance according to the Wilcoxon test, although alkaline ionized water group turned out to be significantly more effective than placebo group at the level of p value of 0.22.Examining overall improvement rates by a 7, 2 test (with no adjustment for continuity) between the effective and noneffective groups, alkaline ionized water group had 64 (79%) of effective cases and 17 cases (21%) of non effective cases, whereas placebo group had 50 (64.9%) and 27 (35.1%) cases respectively. The result indicated that alkaline ionized water group was significantly more effective than placebo group at the level of p value of 0.0.48.Looking only at 83 slight cases of abdominal complaints, overall improvement rate for alkaline ionized water group(45 cases) was composed of 11 cases (242%) of fair improvement, 22 cases (48.9%) of slight improvement, 17 cases (44.7%) of no change and 3 cases (6.7%) of exacerbation, whereas placebo group (38 cases) had 3 (7.8%), 17 (44.7%), 17 (44.7%) and 1 (2.6%) cases for the same category. Alkaline ionized water group was significantly more effective than placebo group according to the comparison between the groups (p value = 0.033).3. Improvement rate by basal symptom
Basal symptoms were divided into chronic diarrhea, constipation and abdominal complaints (dyspepsia) and overall improvement rate was evaluated for each of them to study effect of alkaline ionized water. In case of chronic diarrhoea, alkaline ionized water group resulted in 94.1% of effective cases and 5.9% of non effective cases. Placebo group came up with 64,7% effective and 35.3% non effective. These results indicate alkaline ionized water group proved to be significantly more effective than placebo group. In case of slighter chronic diarrhoea, comparison between groups revealed that alkaline ionized water group is significantly more effective than placebo group (p=0.015). In case of constipation, alkaline ionized water group consisted of 80.5% of effective and 19.5% of non effective cases, whereas placebo group resulted in 73.3% effective and 26.3 non effective. As to abdominal complaints (dyspepsia), alkaline ionized water group had 85.7% of effective and 14.3% non effective cases while placebo group showed 47.1% and 62.9% respectively. Alkaline ionized water group proved to be significantly more effective than placebo group (p=0.025).4. Safety
Since one case of chronic diarrhoea, in placebo group saw exacerbation, the test was stopped. There was no such cases in alkaline ionized water group. Fourteen cases of accessory symptoms, 8 in alkaline ionized water group and 6 in placebo group, were observed, none of which were serious. 31 out of 163 cases (16 in alkaline ionized water group, 15 in placebo group) exhibited fluctuation in test data, although alkaline ionized water group did not have any problematic fluctuations compared to placebo group. Two cases in placebo group and one case in alkaline ionized water group have seen K value of serum climb up and resume to normal value after re testing which indicates the value changes were temporary.
As a result of double blind clinical tests of alkaline ionized water and clean water, alkaline ionized water was proved to be more effective than clean water against chronic diarrhoea, abdominal complaints (dyspepsia) and overall improvement rate (relief from abdominal complaints). Also, safety of alkaline ionized water was confirmed which clinically verifies its usefulness.
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Physiological effects of alkaline ionized water: Effects on metabolites produced by intestinal fermentation
by Takashi Hayakawa, Chicko Tushiya, Hisanori Onoda, Hisayo Ohkouchi, Harul-~to Tsuge (Gifu University, Faculty of Engineering, Dept. of Food Science)We have found that long-term ingestion of alkaline ionized water (alkaline ionized water) reduces cecal fermentation in rats that were given highly fermentable commercial diet (MF: Oriental Yeast Co., Ltd.). In this experiment, rats were fed MF and test water (tap water, alkaline ionized water with pH at 9 and 10) for about 3 months. Feces were collected on the 57th day, and the rats were dissected on the 88th day. The amount of ammonium in fresh feces and cecal contents as well as fecal free-glucose tended to drop down for the alkaline ionized water group. In most cases, the amount of free-amino acids in cecal contents did not differ sign- icantly except for cysteine (decreased in alkaline ionized water with pH at 10) and isoleucine (increased in alkaline ionized water with pH at 10). Purpose of testsAlkaline ionized water electrolyzers have been approved for manufacturing in 1965 by the Ministry of Health and Welfare as medical equipment to produce medical substances. Alkaline ionized water (alkaline ionized water) produced by this equipment is known to be effective against gastrointestinal fermentation, chronic diarrhea, indigestion and hyperchylia as well as for controlling gastric acid.*1 This is mainly based on efficacy of the official calcium hydroxide. *2 By giving alkaline ionized water to rats for a comparatively long time under the condition of extremely high level of intestinal fermentation, we have demonstrated that alkaline ionized water intake is effective for inhibition of intestinal fermentation when its level is high based on some test results where alkaline ionized water worked against cecal hypertrophy and for reduction in the amount of short-chain fatty acid that is the main product of fermentation.*3 We have reported that this is caused by the synergy between calcium level generally contained in alkaline ionized water (about 50ppm) and the value of pH, and that frequency of detecting some anaerobic bacteria tends to be higher in alkaline ionized water groups than the other, although the bacteria count in the intestine does not have significant difference. Based on these results, we made a judgment that effect of taking alkaline ionized water supports part of inhibition mechanism against abnormal intestinal fermentation, which is one of the claims of efficacy that have been attributed to alkaline ionized water electrolyzers. *4 On the other hand, under the dietary condition of low intestinal fermentation, alkaline ionized water uptake does not seem to inhibit fermentation that leads us to believe that effect of alkaline ionized water uptake is characteristic of hyper-fermentation state. Metabolites produced by intestinal fermentation include indole and skatole in addition to organic acids such as short-chain fatty acid and lactic acid as well as toxic metabolites such as ammonium, phenol and pcresol. We do not know how alkaline ionized water uptake would affect the production of these materials. In this experiment, we have tested on ammonium production as explained in the following sections. Testing methodsFour-week-old male Wistar/ST Clean rats were purchased from Japan SLC Co., Ltd. and were divided into 3 groups of 8 each after preliminary breeding. alkaline ionized water of pH 9 and 10 was produced by an electrolyzer Mineone ROYAL NDX3 1 OH by Omco Co., Ltd. This model produces alkaline ionized water by electrolyzing water with calcium lactate added. On the last day of testing, the rats were dissected under Nembutal anesthesia to take blood from the heart by a heparin-treated syringe. As to their organs, the small intestines, cecum and colon plus rectum were taken out from each of them. The cecurn was weighed and cleaned with physiological saline after its contents were removed, and the tissue weight was measured after wiping out moisture. Part of cecal contents was measured its pH, and the rest was used to assay ammonium concentration. The amount of ammonium contained in fresh feces and cecal contents was measured by the Nessler method after collecting it in the extracted samples using Conway’s micro-diffusion container. Fecal free-glucose was assayed by the oxygen method after extraction by hot water. Analysis of free amino acids contained in cecal contents was conducted by the Waters PicoTag amino acid analysis system. Test results and analysesNo difference was found in the rats’ weight gain, water and feed intake and feeding efficiency, nor was any particular distinction in appearance identified. The length of the small intestines and colon plus rectum tended to decline in alkaline ionized water groups. PH value of cecal contents was higher and the amount of fecal free-glucose tended to be lower in alkaline ionized water groups than the control group. Since there was no difference in fecal discharge itself, the amount of free-glucose discharged per day was at a low level. The amount of discharged free-glucose in feces is greater when intestinal fermentation is more intensive, which indicates that intestinal fermentation is more inhibited in alkaline ionized water groups than the control group. Ammonium concentration in cecal contents tends to drop down in alkaline ionized water groups (Fig. 1). This trend was most distinctive in case of fresh feces of one of alkaline ionized water groups with pH 10 (Fig.2) Alkaline ionized water uptake was found to be inhibitory against ammonium production. In order to study dynamics of amino acids in large intestines, we examined free amino acids in the cecal contents to find out that cysteine level is low in alkaline ionized water groups whereas isoleucine level is high in one of alkaline ionized water groups with pH 10, although no significant difference was identified for other amino acids. Bibliography1. “Verification of Alkaline Ionized Water” by Life Water Institute, Metamor Publishing Co., 1994, p.46*2. “Official Pharmaceutical Guidelines of Japan, Vol. IT’ by Japan Public Documents Association, Hirokawa PublIshin Co., 1996*3. “Science and Technology of Functional Water” (part) by Takashi Hayakawa, Haruffito Tsuge, edited by Water Scienll cc Institute, 1999, pp.109-116*4. ‘Tasics and Effective Use of Alkaline Ionized Water” by Takashi Hayakawa, Haruhito Tsuge, edited by Tetsuji Hc kudou, 25th General Assembly of Japan Medical Congress ‘Tunctional Water in Medical Treatment”, Administratio~ Offices, 1999, pp. 10- 11
Effects of alkaline ionized water on formation u0026amp; maintenance of osseous tissues
by Rei Takahashi Zhenhua Zhang Yoshinori Itokawa
(Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Dept. of Pathology and Tumor Biology, Fukui Prefectural University)Effects of calcium alkaline ionized water on formation and maintenance of osseous tissues in rats were examined. In the absence of calcium in the diet, no apparent calcification was observed with only osteoid formation being prominent. Striking differences were found among groups that were given diets with 30% and 60% calcium. Rats raised by calcium ionized water showed the least osteogenetic disturbance. Tibiae and humeri are more susceptible to calcium deficiency than femora. Theses results may indicate that calcium in drinking water effectively supplements osteogenesis in case of dietary calcium deficiency. The mechanism involved in osteoid formation such as absorption rate of calcium from the intestine and effects of calcium alkaline ionized drinking water on maintaining bone structure in the process of aging or under the condition of calcium deficiency is investigated.Osteoporosis that has lately drawn public attention is defined as “conditions of bone brittleness caused by reduction in the amount of bone frames and deterioration of osseous microstructure.” Abnormal calcium metabolism has been considered to be one of the factors to contribute to this problem, which in turn is caused by insufficient calcium take in, reduction in enteral absorption rate of calcium and increase in the amount of calcium in urinal discharge. Under normal conditions, bones absorb old bones by regular metabolism through osteoid formation to maintain their strength and function as supporting structure. It is getting clear that remodeling of bones at the tissue level goes through the process of activation, resorption, reversal, matrix synthesis and mineralization. Another important function of bones is storing minerals especially by coordinating with intestines and kidneys to control calcium concentration in the blood. When something happens to this osteo metabolism, it results in abnormal morphological changes. Our analyses have been focusing mostly on the changes in the amount of bones to examine effects of calcium alkaline ionized water on the reaction system of osteo metabolism and its efficiency. Ibis time, however, we studied it further from the standpoint of histology. In other words, we conducted comparative studies on morphological and kinetic changes of osteogenesis by testing alkaline ionized water, tap water and solution of lactate on rats.Three week old male Wistar rats were divided into 12 groups by conditions of feed and drinking water. Feeds were prepared with 0%, 30%, 60% and 100% of normal amount of calcium and were given freely. Three types of drinking water, tap water (city water, about 6ppm of Ca), calcium lactate solution (Ca=40ppm) and alkaline ionized water (Ca =40ppm, pH=9, produced by an electrolyzer NDX 4 LMC by Omco OMC Co., Ltd.) were also given keely. Rats’ weight, amount of drinking water and feed as well as the content of Ca in drinking water were assayed every day. On the 19th and 25th days of testing, tetracycline hydrochloride was added to the feed for 48 hours so as to bring its concentration to 30mg/kg. On the 30th day, blood samples were taken under Nembutal anesthesia, and tibiae, humeri and femora were taken out to make non decalcified samples. Their conditions of osteoid formation and rotation were observed using Villanueva bone stain and Villanueva goldner stain.Three groups that were given different types of drinking water and the same amount of Ca in the feed were compared to find out no significant difference in the rate of weight gain and intakes of feed and drinking water. Alkaline ionized water group had significantly greater amount of tibiae and humeri with higher concentration of calcium in the bones.The group of 0% calcium in the feed saw drastic increase in the amount of osteoid. There was not much difference by types of drinking water. Almost no tetracycline was taken into tibiae and humeri, although a small amount was identified in ferora. As a result, osteogenesis went as far as osteoid formation, but it was likely that decalcification has not happened yet, or most of newly formed bones were absorbed.As to the groups of 30% and 60% calcium in the feed, increase in the area of tetracycline take in was more identifiable with higher clarity in descending order of alkaline ionized water, calcium lactate solution and tap water groups. Especially in case of tap water group, irregularity among the areas of tetracycline take in was distinctive. The group of 100% calcium in the feed saw some improvements in osteogenesis in descending order of alkaline ionized water, calcium lactate solution and tap water. In any case, bone formation seemed to be in good condition at near normal level.Alkaline ionized water was regarded to be effective for improvements of osteogenesis under the conditions of insufficient calcium in the feed. Also, the extent. of dysosteogenesis differed by the region. That is, tibiae and humeri tend to have more significant dysosteogenesis than femora.In addition, there is a possibility that osteo metabolism varies depending on enteral absorption rate of calcium, adjustment of discharge from kidneys and functional adjustment of accessory thyroid in the presence of alkaline ionized water. We are now studying its impact on calcium concentration in the blood. We are also examining whether it is possible to deter bone deterioration by testing on fast aging mouse models.
Fluid replacement promotes optimal physical performance.
Adequate fluid replacement helps maintain hydration and promotes the health, safety, and optimal physical performance of individuals participating in regular physical activity. Med Sci Sports Exercise 1996 Jan;28(1):i-vii.
American College of Sports Medicine-Exercise u0026amp; Fluid Replacement
Convertino VA, Armstrong LE, Coyle EF, Mack GW, Sawka MN, Senay LC Jr, Sherman WM.
- It is the position of the American College of Sports Medicine that adequate fluid replacement helps maintain hydration and, therefore, promotes the health, safety, and optimal physical performance of individuals participating in regular physical activity. This position statement is based on a comprehensive review and interpretation of scientific literature concerning the influence of fluid replacement on exercise performance and the risk of thermal injury associated with dehydration and hyperthermia. Based on available evidence, the American College of Sports Medicine makes the following general recommendations on the amount and composition of fluid that should be ingested in preparation for, during, and after exercise or athletic competition: 1) It is recommended that individuals consume a nutritionally balanced diet and drink adequate fluids during the 24-hr period before an event, especially during the period that includes the meal prior to exercise, to promote proper hydration before exercise or competition.
- It is recommended that individuals drink about 500 ml (about 17 ounces) of fluid about 2 h before exercise to promote adequate hydration and allow time for excretion of excess ingested water.
- During exercise, athletes should start drinking early and at regular intervals in an attempt to consume fluids at a rate sufficient to replace all the water lost through sweating (i.e., body weight loss), or consume the maximal amount that can be tolerated.
- It is recommended that ingested fluids be cooler than ambient temperature [between 15 degrees and 22 degrees C (59 degrees and 72 degrees F])] and flavored to enhance palatability and promote fluid replacement. Fluids should be readily available and served in containers that allow adequate volumes to be ingested with ease and with minimal interruption of exercise.
- During intense exercise lasting longer than 1 h, it is recommended that carbohydrates be ingested at a rate of 30-60 g.h(-1) to maintain oxidation of carbohydrates and delay fatigue. This rate of carbohydrate intake can be achieved without compromising fluid delivery by drinking 600-1200 ml.h(-1) of solutions containing 4%-8% carbohydrates (g.100 ml(-1)). The carbohydrates can be sugars (glucose or sucrose) or starch (e.g., maltodextrin).
- Inclusion of sodium (0.5-0.7 g.1(-1) of water) in the rehydration solution ingested during exercise lasting longer than 1 h is recommended since it may be advantageous in enhancing palatability, promoting fluid retention, and possibly preventing hyponatremia in certain individuals who drink excessive quantities of fluid. There is little physiological basis for the presence of sodium in n oral rehydration solution for enhancing intestinal water absorption as long as sodium is sufficiently available from the previous meal.
Rapporter om surt vatten
Comparison of electrolyzed oxidizing water with various antimicrobial interventions to reduce Salmonella species on poultry.
2002 Oct;81(10):1598-605.Fabrizio KA, Sharma RR, Demirci A, Cutter CN.Department of Food Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park 16802, USA.
Foodborne pathogens in cell suspensions or attached to surfaces can be reduced by electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water; however, the use of EO water against pathogens associated with poultry has not been explored. In this study, acidic EO water [EO-A; pH 2.6, chlorine (CL) 20 to 50 ppm, and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of 1,150 mV], basic EO water (EO-B; pH 11.6, ORP of -795 mV), CL, ozonated water (OZ), acetic acid (AA), or trisodium phosphate (TSP) was applied to broiler carcasses inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) and submerged (4 C, 45 min), spray-washed (85 psi, 25 C, 15 s), or subjected to multiple interventions (EO-B spray, immersed in EO-A; AA or TSP spray, immersed in CL). Remaining bacterial populations were determined and compared at Day 0 and 7 of aerobic, refrigerated storage. At Day 0, submersion in TSP and AA reduced ST 1.41 log10, whereas EO-A water reduced ST approximately 0.86 log10. After 7 d of storage, EO-A water, OZ, TSP, and AA reduced ST, with detection only after selective enrichment. Spray-washing treatments with any of the compounds did not reduce ST at Day 0. After 7 d of storage, TSP, AA, and EO-A water reduced ST 2.17, 2.31, and 1.06 log10, respectively. ST was reduced 2.11 log10 immediately following the multiple interventions, 3.81 log10 after 7 d of storage. Although effective against ST, TSP and AA are costly and adversely affect the environment. This study demonstrates that EO water can reduce ST on poultry surfaces following extended refrigerated storage.
PMID: 12412930 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
Treatment of Escherichia coli (O157:H7) inoculated alfalfa seeds and sprouts with electrolyzed oxidizing water.
Int J Food Microbiol.
2003 Sep 15;86(3):231-7.
Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA.
Electrolyzed oxidizing water is a relatively new concept that has been utilized in agriculture, livestock management, medical sterilization, and food sanitation. Electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water generated by passing sodium chloride solution through an EO water generator was used to treat alfalfa seeds and sprouts inoculated with a five-strain cocktail of nalidixic acid resistant Escherichia coli O157:H7. EO water had a pH of 2.6, an oxidation-reduction potential of 1150 mV and about 50 ppm free chlorine. The percentage reduction in bacterial load was determined for reaction times of 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 min. Mechanical agitation was done while treating the seeds at different time intervals to increase the effectiveness of the treatment. Since E. coli O157:H7 was released due to soaking during treatment, the initial counts on seeds and sprouts were determined by soaking the contaminated seeds/sprouts in 0.1% peptone water for a period equivalent to treatment time. The samples were then pummeled in 0.1% peptone water and spread plated on tryptic soy agar with 5 microg/ml of nalidixic acid (TSAN). Results showed that there were reductions between 38.2% and 97.1% (0.22-1.56 log(10) CFU/g) in the bacterial load of treated seeds. The reductions for sprouts were between 91.1% and 99.8% (1.05-2.72 log(10) CFU/g). An increase in treatment time increased the percentage reduction of E. coli O157:H7. However, germination of the treated seeds reduced from 92% to 49% as amperage to make EO water and soaking time increased. EO water did not cause any visible damage to the sprouts. PMID: 12915034 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
Inactivation of Escherichia coli (O157:H7) and Listeria monocytogenes on plastic kitchen cutting boards by electrolyzed oxidizing water.
Venkitanarayanan KS, Ezeike GO, Hung YC, Doyle MP.Department of Animal Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs 06269, USA.One milliliter of culture containing a five-strain mixture of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (approximately 10(10) CFU) was inoculated on a 100-cm2 area marked on unscarred cutting boards. Following inoculation, the boards were air-dried under a laminar flow hood for 1 h, immersed in 2 liters of electrolyzed oxidizing water or sterile deionized water at 23 degrees C or 35 degrees C for 10 or 20 min; 45 degrees C for 5 or 10 min; or 55 degrees C for 5 min. After each temperature-time combination, the surviving population of the pathogen on cutting boards and in soaking water was determined. Soaking of inoculated cutting boards in electrolyzed oxidizing water reduced E. coli O157:H7 populations by > or = 5.0 log CFU/100 cm2 on cutting boards. However, immersion of cutting boards in deionized water decreased the pathogen count only by 1.0 to 1.5 log CFU/100 cm2. Treatment of cutting boards inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes in electrolyzed oxidizing water at selected temperature-time combinations (23 degrees C for 20 min, 35 degrees C for 10 min, and 45 degrees C for 10 min) substantially reduced the populations of L. monocytogenes in comparison to the counts recovered from the boards immersed in deionized water. E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes were not detected in electrolyzed oxidizing water after soaking treatment, whereas the pathogens survived in the deionized water used for soaking the cutting boards. This study revealed that immersion of kitchen cutting boards in electrolyzed oxidizing water could be used as an effective method for inactivating foodborne pathogens on smooth, plastic cutting boards.PMID: 10456736 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
The bactericidal effects of electrolyzed oxidizing water on bacterial strains involved in hospital infections.
Vorobjeva NV, Vorobjeva LI, Khodjaev EY.
Department of Physiology of Microorganisms, Biology Faculty, Moscow State University, Lenin Hills 1/12, Moscow 119992, Russia.
The study is designed to investigate bactericidal actions of electrolyzed oxidizing water on hospital infections. Ten of the most common opportunistic pathogens are used for this study. Cultures are inoculated in 4.5 mL of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water or 4.5 mL of sterile deionized water (control), and incubated for 0, 0.5, and 5 min at room temperature. At the exposure time of 30 s the EO water completely inactivates all of the bacterial strains, with the exception of vegetative cells and spores of bacilli which need 5 min to be killed. The results indicate that electrolyzed oxidizing water may be a useful disinfectant for hospital infections, but its clinical application has still to be evaluated.
PMID: 15153153 [PubMed – in process]
Effect of electrolyzed oxidizing water and hydrocolloid occlusive dressings on excised burn-wounds in rats.
Chin J Traumatol.
2003 Aug 1;6(4):234-7.
Xin H, Zheng YJ, Hajime N, Han ZG.Department of Thoracic Surgery, China-Japan Union Hospital, Jilin University, Jilin 130031, China.
OBJECTIVE: To study the efficacy of electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW) and hydrocolloid occlusive dressings in the acceleration of epithelialization in excised burn-wounds in rats. METHODS: Each of the anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats (n=28) was subjected to a third-degree burn that covered approximately 10% of the total body surface area. Rats were assigned into four groups: Group I (no irrigation), Group II (irrigation with physiologic saline), Group III (irrigation with EOW) and Group IV (hydrocolloid occlusive dressing after EOW irrigation). Wounds were observed macroscopically until complete epithelialization was present, then the epithelialized wounds were examined microscopically. RESULTS: Healing of the burn wounds was the fastest in Group IV treated with hydrocolloid occlusive dressing together with EOW. Although extensive regenerative epidermis was seen in each Group, the proliferations of lymphocytes and macrophages associated with dense collagen deposition were more extensive in Group II, III and IV than in Group I. These findings were particularly evident in Group III and IV. CONCLUSIONS: Wound Healing may be accelerated by applying a hydrocolloid occlusive dressing on burn surfaces after they are cleaned with EOW.PMID: 12857518 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
Effect of electrolyzed water on wound healing.
2000 Dec;24(12):984-7.Yahagi N, Kono M, Kitahara M, Ohmura A, Sumita O, Hashimoto T, Hori K, Ning-Juan C, Woodson P, Kubota S, Murakami A, Takamoto S.Department of Anesthesiology, Teikyo University Mizonokuchi Hospital, Tokyo, Japan. [email protected]
Electrolyzed water accelerated the healing of full-thickness cutaneous wounds in rats, but only anode chamber water (acid pH or neutralized) was effective. Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), also produced by electrolysis, was ineffective, suggesting that these types of electrolyzed water enhance wound healing by a mechanism unrelated to the well-known antibacterial action of HOCl. One possibility is that reactive oxygen species, shown to be electron spin resonance spectra present in anode chamber water, might trigger early wound healing through fibroblast migration and proliferation.PMID: 11121980 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
Decomposition of ethylene, a flower-senescence hormone, with electrolyzed anode water.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem.
2003 Apr;67(4):790-6.Harada K, Yasui K.Department of Research and Development, Hokkaido Electric Power Co., Inc., 2-1 Tsuishikari, Ebetsu, Hokkaido 067-0033, Japan. [email protected]Electrolyzed anode water (EAW) markedly extended the vase life of cut carnation flowers. Therefore, a flower-senescence hormone involving ethylene decomposition by EAW with potassium chloride as an electrolyte was investigated. Ethylene was added externally to EAW, and the reaction between ethylen and the available chlorine in EAW was examined. EAW had a low pH value (2.5), a high concentration of dissolved oxygen, and extremely high redox potential (19.2 mg/l and 1323 mV, respectively) when available chlorine was at a concentration of about 620 microns. The addition of ethylene to EAW led to ethylene decomposition, and an equimolar amount of ethylene chlorohydrine with available chlorine was produced. The ethylene chlorohydrine production was greatly affected by the pH value (pH 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 were tested), and was faster in an acidic solution. Ethylene chlorohydrine was not produced after ethylene had been added to EAW at pH 2.6 when available chlorine was absent, but was produced after potassium hypochlorite had been added to such EAW. The effect of the pH value of EAW on the vase life of cut carnations was compatible with the decomposition rate of ethylene in EAW of the same pH value. These results suggest that the effect of EAW on the vase life of cut carnations was due to the decomposition of ethylene to ethylene chlorohydrine by chlorine from chlorine compounds.PMID: 12784619 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
Health Benefits of Alkaline Drinking WaterThe effect of the alkali load of mineral water on bone metabolism: interventional studies.
PMID 18203918Adverse effects on bone turnover with low-calcium diets can be prevented by giving high-calcium, alkaline drinking water.
PMID 8869414Mineral water as a source of dietary calcium: acute effects on parathyroid function and bone resorption in young men.
PMID 10731509Cell hydration as the primary factor in carcinogenesis: A unifying concept.
Acid/Alkaline Theory of DiseaseDiets or drugs that shift acid-base balance in the alkaline direction may provide useful treatments for bone loss disorders.
PMID: 18203913 Low-grade metabolic alkalosis may be the optimal acid-base state for humans.
PMID: 11842945 Food composition and acid-base balance: alimentary alkali depletion and acid load in herbivores.
Alkaline diets favor lean tissue mass in older adults.
Water Structure Research
How ions affect the structure of water.
Hribar B, Southall NT, Vlachy V, Dill KA. Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, Askerceva 5, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.We model ion solvation in water. We use the MB model of water, a simple two-dimensional statistical mechanical model in which waters are represented as Lennard-Jones disks having Gaussian hydrogen-bonding arms. We introduce a charge dipole into MB waters. We perform (NPT) Monte Carlo simulations to explore how water molecules are organized around ions and around nonpolar solutes in salt solutions. The model gives good qualitative agreement with experiments, including Jones-Dole viscosity B coefficients, Samoilov and Hirata ion hydration activation energies, ion solvation thermodynamics, and Setschenow coefficients for Hofmeister series ions, which describe the salt concentration dependence of the solubilities of hydrophobic solutes. The two main ideas captured here are (1) that charge densities govern the interactions of ions with water, and (2) that a balance of forces determines water structure: electrostatics (water’s dipole interacting with ions) and hydrogen bonding (water interacting with neighboring waters). Small ions (kosmotropes) have high charge densities so they cause strong electrostatic ordering of nearby waters, breaking hydrogen bonds. In contrast, large ions (chaotropes) have low charge densities, and surrounding water molecules are largely hydrogen bonded.